Cement Kilns

Hope

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Location:

  • Grid reference: SK16648231
  • x=416640
  • y=382310
  • 53°20'15"N; 1°45'0"W
  • Civil Parish: Hope, Derbyshire: the limestone quarry is in Bradwell, Derbyshire

Clinker manufacture operational: 1929 to date

Approximate total clinker production to 2009: 61 million tonnes (1st)

Raw materials:

Ownership:

After 29 years of Blue Circle’s existence, Hope was its first UK green-field site. The next was Cauldon, 28 years later. The plant seems to have been planned as early as 1910, but plans were disrupted by WWI and the ensuing volatile economy. The site has raw materials perfect for dry process, but, installed at a time when the reputation of dry process was at its lowest ebb, wet processing was adopted. Uniquely among plants at the time, Hope was prohibited from discarding kiln dust from the outset, and recycled all its wet process dust in A1 and A2 slurry feeds. The plant became Blue Circle’s largest following installation of A5 in 1953 until 1962 when it was overtaken by Cauldon. The planning of the kiln A5 expansion caused a furore during 1949-1952, not because of the capacity expansion, but because of the accompanying new 120 m stack, although the existing plant, with no dust fitration, was already very prominent in the National Park landscape. Electrostatic precipitators were fitted to the existing kilns as part of the project, and dust emissions were dramatically reduced. The existing site became very cramped with the expansion, and when further expansion was called for, it was obvious that a new kiln area should be used. By that time, sufficient confidence had been gained in the Plymstock kilns to install two large KHD suspension preheater kilns. This became part of the major rationalization of Blue Circle’s capacity that also involved the construction of Northfleet, and accordingly the plant was nearly doubled in size. Kilns B1 and B2 ran neck-and-neck with the Northfleet kilns as the largest until they were overtaken by Platin A2 in 1977.

The plant had from the outset a purpose-built 3 km spur from the main Manchester-Sheffield railway, and this allowed easy transport into Earle’s depot network throughout the North. More recently, because the nearby Cauldon lacks rail, Lafarge have considerably up-rated Hope’s rail facilities so that it can serve the longer-distance market while Cauldon covers the immediate area.

Please contact me with any relevant information or corrections. I am particularly interested in firmer dates and statistics.

Note: technical information on currently operational plants is ✄withheld in the public version of the site at present.

Rawmills

  • 1929: clay was ground at the clay quarry in a 78 kW washmill and pumped as slurry to the plant (700 m). For grinding the limestone with the clay slip, the initial installation had two FLS 485 kW ball mills.
  • 1935-1970: Subsequent additional ball mills added with the additional kilns: three Vickers 670 kW.
  • 1970 to date: ✄

Seven rotary kilns were installed in two stages:

Kiln A1

Supplier: FLS
Operated: 15/11/1929 -25/05/1970
Process: Wet
Location: Hot end 416733,382198: Cold end 416665,382152: entirely enclosed
Dimensions (from cooler ports): Metric:

  • 1929-?1933 82.00 × 3.150B / 2.550CD
  • ?1933-1970 82.00 × 3.150B / 2.550C / 3.505D (Vickers Armstrong enlarged back-end added)

Rotation (viewed from firing end): anti-clockwise
Kiln profile (from cooler ports):

  • 1929-?1933 -2200×3150: 24172×3150: 26553×2550: 82000×2550: Tyres at 2194, 13192, 30414, 49616, 71219, 80680
  • ?1933-1970 -2200×3150: 24172×3150: 26553×2550: 74794×2550: 76699×3505: 79232×3505: 81137×2550: 82000×2550: Tyres at 2194, 13192, 30414, 49616, 71219, 80680

Cooler: Unax planetary 12 × 4.85 × 1.060
Fuel: Coal
Coal mill: semi-indirect: ball mill
Exhaust: via ID fan direct to stack: an electrostatic precipitator was put in after the ID fan in 1953.
Typical Output: 1929-1941 266 t/d: 1941-1946 260 t/d: 1946-1958 275 t/d: 1959-1970 258 t/d
Typical Heat Consumption: 1929-1937 6.43 MJ/kg: 1937-1942 7.04 MJ/kg: 1943-1954 7.39 MJ/kg: 1955-1970 7.85 MJ/kg


Kiln A2

Supplier: FLS
Operated: 25/11/1929 to 25/05/1970
Process: Wet
Location: Hot end 416738,382191: Cold end 416671,382144: entirely enclosed
Dimensions (from cooler ports): Metric:

  • 1929-?1933 82.00 × 3.150B / 2.550CD
  • ?1933-1970 82.00 × 3.150B / 2.550C / 3.505D (Vickers Armstrong enlarged back-end added: not quite the same as A1.)

Rotation (viewed from firing end): anti-clockwise
Kiln profile (from cooler ports):

  • 1929-?1933 -2200×3150: 24172×3150: 26553×2550: 82000×2550: Tyres at 2194, 13192, 30414, 49616, 71219, 80680
  • ?1933-1970 -2200×3150: 24172×3150: 26553×2550: 73594×2550: 75499×3505: 78242×3505: 80147×2550: 82000×2550: Tyres at 2194, 13192, 30414, 49616, 71219, 80680

Cooler: Unax planetary 12 × 4.85 × 1.060
Fuel: Coal
Coal mill: semi-indirect: ball mill
Exhaust: via ID fan direct to stack: an electrostatic precipitator was put in after the ID fan in 1953.
Typical Output: 1929-1941 264 t/d: 1941-1946 260 t/d: 1946-1958 278 t/d: 1959-1970 255 t/d
Typical Heat Consumption: 1929-1937 6.57 MJ/kg: 1937-1942 7.21 MJ/kg: 1943-1954 7.49 MJ/kg: 1955-1970 7.86 MJ/kg


Kiln A3

Supplier: Vickers Armstrong
Operated: 23/04/1935-31/05/1970
Process: Wet
Location: Hot end 416747,382186: Cold end 416675,382137: entirely enclosed
Dimensions (from cooler ports):

  • 1935-?1958 283’6⅛”× 11’0”B / 9’0”C / 14’7”D (metric 86.41×3.353B/2.743C/4.445D)
  • ?1958-1970 285’6⅛”× 11’0”B / 9’0”CD (metric 87.02×3.353B/2.743CD) (desiccator removed)

Rotation (viewed from firing end): ?
Kiln profile (from cooler ports):

  • 1935-?1958 -610×3353: 28346×3353: 30328×2743: 77978×2743: 79451×4445: 82499×4445: 82753×2743: 86414×2743: Tyres at 6401, 22250, 38557, 55397, 71933, 84887
  • ?1958-1970 -610×3353: 28346×3353: 30328×2743: 87024×2743: Tyres at 6401, 22250, 38557, 55397, 71933, 84887

Cooler: Reflex “Recuperator” planetary 12 × 13’6⅜”×4’0” (metric 4.12 × 1.207)
Fuel: Coal
Coal mill: semi-indirect: ball mill
Exhaust: via ID fan direct to stack: an electrostatic precipitator was put in after the ID fan in 1953.
Typical Output: 1935-1951 315 t/d: 1952-1970 326 t/d
Typical Heat Consumption: 1935-1961 7.27 MJ/kg: 1962-1970 7.63 MJ/kg


Kiln A4

Supplier: Vickers Armstrong
Operated: 1938-31/05/1970
Process: Wet
Location: Hot end 416752,382179: Cold end 416681,382130: entirely enclosed
Dimensions (from cooler ports):

  • 1938-?1957 284’6⅛”× 11’6”B / 9’6”C / 14’7”D (metric 86.72×3.505B/2.896C/4.445D)
  • ?1957-1970 284’6⅛”× 11’6”B / 9’6”CD (metric 87.33×3.505B/2.896CD) (desiccator removed)

Rotation (viewed from firing end): ?
Kiln profile (from cooler ports):

  • 1938-?1957 -610×3353: 1397×3353: 3962×3505: 28651×3505: 30632×2896: 78283×2896: 79756×4445: 82804×4445: 83058×2896: 86719×2896: Tyres at 6858, 22555, 38862, 55702, 72238, 85192
  • ?1957-1970 -610×3353: 1397×3353: 3962×3505: 28651×3505: 30632×2896: 87328×2896: Tyres at 6858, 22555, 38862, 55702, 72238, 85192

Cooler: Reflex “Recuperator” planetary 12 × 14’6⅜”×4’0” (metric 4.43 × 1.207)
Fuel: Coal
Coal mill: indirect: Rema closed circuit ball mill
Exhaust: via ID fan direct to stack: an electrostatic precipitator was put in after the ID fan in 1953.
Typical Output: 1938-1944 341 t/d: 1944-1950 334 t/d: 1950-1957 339 t/d: 1958-1963 333 t/d: 1964-1970 339 t/d
Typical Heat Consumption: 1938-1962 7.40 MJ/kg: 1962-1970 7.79 MJ/kg


Kiln A5

Supplier: Vickers Armstrong
Operated: 4/1953-30/05/1970
Process: Wet
Location: Hot end 416731,382209: Cold end 416646,382150: a short part of the hot end was enclosed
Dimensions (from cooler ports): 338’10½”× 11’6”B / 10’0¼”CD (metric 103.29×3.505B/3.054CD)
Rotation (viewed from firing end): ?
Kiln profile (from cooler ports): -610×3353: 1422×3353: 4089×3505: 29794×3505: 32461×3054: 101765×3054: 102375×2121: 103289×2121: tyres at 6960, 22860, 39929, 59436, 78943, 98450: turning gear at 42748
Cooler: Reflex “Recuperator” planetary 12 × 14’6⅛”×4’0” (metric 4.42 × 1.207)
Fuel: Coal
Coal mill: direct: two Atritors
Exhaust: ID fan followed by electrostatic precipitator.
Typical Output: 1953-1961 426 t/d: 1962-1970 430 t/d
Typical Heat Consumption: 1953-1961 7.33 MJ/kg: 1962-1970 7.62 MJ/kg


Kiln B1

Supplier: kiln by Polysius: preheater by KHD
Operated: 01/04/1970 to date
Process: suspension preheater: details✄
Location: hot end 416587,382400: cold end 416532,382443: unenclosed
Dimensions: ✄
Rotation (viewed from firing end): clockwise
Kiln profile: ✄
Cooler: grate: details✄
Fuel: ✄
Coal mill: ✄
Exhaust: ✄
Typical Output: ✄
Typical Heat Consumption: ✄


Kiln B2

Supplier: kiln by Polysius: preheater by KHD
Operated: 22/05/1970 to date
Process: suspension preheater
Location: hot end 416596,382411: cold end 416541,382454: unenclosed
Dimensions: ✄
Rotation (viewed from firing end): clockwise
Kiln profile: ✄
Cooler: grate: details✄
Fuel: ✄
Coal mill: ✄
Exhaust: ✄
Typical Output: ✄
Typical Heat Consumption: ✄



Sources: Jackson, pp 228, 282: Pugh, pp 155-156, 174: Circle 4 (1979) pp 13-18: “The New Hope Cement Works of Messrs. G. & T. Earle, Ltd.”, Cement and Cement Manufacture, 3, Jan 1930, pp 55-68: Earle's Cement Works at Hope, Blue Circle Publicity Department, 1930: "New kilns for Hope cement works", Cement Technology, 2, 1971, pp 65-66: "New extensions to Hope cement works", Cement Technology, 2, 1971, pp 187-192.


© Dylan Moore 2011: last edit 22/10/14.

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Old Maps

Detail plan of the plant ✄withheld while site remains active.

Approximate capacity: tonnes per year: ✄

Picture: ©English Heritage - NMR Aerofilms Collection. Britain from Above reference number EPW031002.
Britain from Above features some of the oldest and most valuable images of the Aerofilms Collection, a unique and important archive of aerial photographs. You can download images, share memories, and add information. By the end of the project in 2014, 95,000 images taken between 1919 and 1953 will be available online.
This was taken in late 1929, when the initial two-kiln plant was still under construction, and shows the plant from the northwest. View in High Definition.


Hope Picture
Picture: Blue Circle Archive. This shows Hope A1 (left) and A2 around the time of commissioning in 1929.


Hope 1954
Picture: ©English Heritage - NMR Aerofilms Collection. Catalogue number R20367. A high-definition version can be obtained from English Heritage. This was taken on 29/4/1954, from the southwest above the quarry. Limestone came down the conveyor from the quarry, through the crushers built into the hillside. Kiln 5 had recently been installed, crammed into the space between the rawmills (right-centre) and kilns 1 to 4 (arranged left to right in the centre). This necessitated putting the precipitator (left of short stack) above the kiln, while the exhaust gas was ducted over the old kilns to reach the new stack. The clinker store was located to the right of the old kilns. The clay field is on the top right.


 GeoScenicP221734©NERC1969
Picture: ©NERC 1969: British Geological Survey Cat. No. P221734. This shows the plant in 1969 during construction of the dry process plant, viewed from the west.


Hope 2005
Picture: ©Giles Robinson 2005, and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence. See this and related images on Geograph. This is the plant in 2005, viewed from the west. The dry process kilns are to the left and the old plant area is to the right. In front of the stack is the limestone store. Behind the stack is the rawmill building. To the right of the stack are the rawmix blending and storage silos, and behind them is the preheater tower. The kilns are just visible behind the limestone conveyor. The tent-shaped building right of centre is the clinker store.


Hope View
Picture: ©"martin evans2007" 2007, and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence. Hope is regarded as the world's most photogenic cement plant. A Google search turns up thousands of images.